The following is a summary of the “Role of the gut microbiome in eye diseases,” published in the January 2023 issue of Progress in retinal and eye research by Burri, et al.

The intestinal microbiome is a diverse community of microorganisms and their associated genes that inhabit the gut. The microbiome of the intestines works in harmony with the host to keep things steady in the gut, a process known as homeostasis. It plays a role in fundamental processes like nutrient metabolism, pathogen suppression, and immune system regulation. 

This is because microbial dysbiosis causes systemic inflammation, which can cause tissue destruction and promote the onset of various diseases by facilitating the translocation of microbes and their metabolites along the epithelial barrier. Several studies have linked the gut microbiome’s composition and associated functional capacities to ocular diseases like AMD, RAO, CSC, and uveitis using whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing. 

In this review, they summarize what is currently known about the role of the gut microbiome in ocular diseases, with a special emphasis on the connections between the microbiome, immune system, and particular microbial metabolites. They describe how these interactions may contribute to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration, retinal artery occlusion, central serous chorioretinopathy, and uveitis, and they provide direction for the creation of novel therapeutic approaches by interventions that alter the microbiome.