Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a semiconductor nanomaterial with broad application in liquid crystal displays, solar cells, and electrochemical immune sensors. It is worth noting that, with the gradual increase in worker exposure opportunities, the exposure risk in occupational production cannot be ignored. At present, the toxicity of ITO mainly focuses on respiratory toxicity. ITO inhaled through the upper respiratory tract can cause pathological changes such as interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary fibrosis. Still, extrapulmonary toxicity after nanoscale ITO nanoparticle (ITO NPs) exposure, such as long-term effects on the central nervous system, should also be of concern. Therefore, we set up exposure dose experiments (0 mg·kg, 3.6 mg·kg, and 36 mg·kg) based on occupational exposure limits to treat C57BL/6 mice via nasal drops for 15 weeks. Moreover, we conducted a preliminary assessment of the neurotoxicity of ITO NPs (20-30 nm) in vivo. The results indicated that ITO NPs can cause diffuse inflammatory infiltrates in brain tissue, increased glial cell responsiveness, abnormal neuronal cell lineage transition, neuronal migration disorders, and neuronal apoptosis related to the oxidative stress induced by ITO NPs exposure. Hence, our findings provide useful information for the fuller risk assessment of ITO NPs after occupational exposure.Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier B.V.