Mucosal surfaces serve as the primary entry points for pathogens such as SARS- CoV-2 coronavirus or HIV in the human body. Mucosal vaccination plays a crucial role to successfully induce long-lasting systemic and local immune responses to confer sterilizing immunity. However, antigen formulations and delivery methods must be properly selected since they are decisive for the quality and the magnitude of the elicited immune responses in mucosa. We investigated the significance of using particulate antigen forms for mucosal vaccination by comparing VLP- or protein- based vaccines in a mouse model. Based on a mucosal prime-boost immunization protocol combining (i) HIV- pseudotyped recombinant VLPs (HIV-VLPs) and (ii) plasmid DNA encoding HIV- VLPs (pVLPs), we demonstrated that combination of intranasal primes and intravaginal boosts is optimal to elicit both humoral and cellular memory responses in mucosa. Interestingly, our results show that in contrast to proteins, particulate antigens induce high-quality humoral responses characterized by a high breadth, long-term neutralizing activity and cross-clade reactivity, accompanying with high T follicular helper cell (TFH) response. These results underscore the potential of a VLP-based vaccine in effectively instigating long-lasting, HIV-specific immunity and point out the specific role of particulate antigen form in driving high-quality mucosal immune responses.Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier B.V.