The following is the summary of “Brain edema after oocyte retrieval: a case report” published in the December 2022 issue of Women’s health by Fan, et al.

The development of cerebral edema is a rare but possibly fatal side effect of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Both the rise in intracranial pressure and the damage to the brain parenchyma put the patient’s life in jeopardy and could potentially result in the patient’s death. There is a possibility that an increase in vascular permeability is involved in the etiology of the disease. It’s possible that vascular endothelial growth factor and other vasoactive chemicals, like angiotensin II, insulin-like growth factor 1, transforming growth factor, and the renin–angiotensin system, are to blame for this.

An uncommon case report was presented in which a lady in her twenties who had her oocytes removed reported significant agitation, a hazy state of consciousness, and vomiting 8 hours following the procedure. It was discovered that the patient had hyponatremia, and cranial computed tomography showed swelling in the parenchyma of the patient’s brain. As a result of the medical treatment that involved the administration of hypertonic saline and mannitol infusion, the patient regained consciousness, and her neurological condition considerably improved.

 A potentially fatal consequence of ART is a condition known as brain edema, which occurs relatively seldom. The administration of a hypertonic salt solution and mannitol by fast intravenous infusion is an essential part of the treatment. If treatment is started and continued in a timely manner, it is possible to have a positive outcome.