Objective To identify the key targets and molecular mechanisms of Sangbaipi decoction in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) by using network pharmacology. Methods The active components of Sangbaipi Decoction were searched in Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP) database, with the corresponding targets predicted. The related targets of AECOPD were searched within gene banks, OMIM and Drugbank.The names of prediction targets and disease targets were standardized by UniProt, and the intersection targets were selected. TCM component target network diagram was drawn and analyzed by Cytoscape 3.6.0. The common targets were imported into the metascape database for gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis, and molecular docking was carried out by using auto dock tools software. Results A total of 126 active ingredients in Sangbaipi decoction, 1351 predicted corresponding targets and 2296 disease-related targets were detected. The main active ingredients include quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, wogonin β. The core targets of sitosterol involve tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor protein p53 (TP53), mitogen activated protein kinase 8 (MAPK8) and MAPK14. A total of 2720 signals were obtained from GO enrichment analysis and 334 signal pathways were obtained from KEGG enrichment analysis. The molecular docking results showed that the main active components can bind to the core target, at a stable the binding conformation. Conclusion Sangbaipi decoction may have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and other biological effects through multiple active ingredients, multiple targets and signal pathways, thus effectively treating AECOPD.