Child maltreatment is distressingly prevalent yet remains under-recognized by healthcare providers. In 2015 the Ohio Children’s Hospital Association developed the Timely Recognition of Abusive INjuries (TRAIN) collaborative in an effort to promote child physical abuse (CPA) screening. Our institution implemented the TRAIN initiative in 2019. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of the TRAIN initiative at this institution.
In this retrospective chart review we recorded the incidence of sentinel injuries (SIS) in children presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) of an independent level 2 pediatric trauma center. SIS were defined and identified by a diagnosis of ecchymosis, contusion, fracture, head injury, intracranial hemorrhage, abdominal trauma, open wound, laceration, abrasion, oropharyngeal injury, genital injury, intoxication, or burn in a child < 6.01 months of age. Patients were stratified into pre-TRAIN (PRE), 1/2017-9/2018, or post-TRAIN (POST), 10/2019-7/2020, periods. Repeat injury was defined as a subsequent visit for any of the previously mentioned diagnoses within 12 months of the initial visit. Demographics/visit characteristics were analyzed using Chi square analysis, Fischer's exact test, and student's paired t-test.
In the PRE period, 12,812 ED visits were made by children < 6.01 months old; 2.8% of these visits were made by patients with SIS. In the POST period there were 5,372 ED visits, 2.6% involved SIS (p = .4). The rate of skeletal surveys performed on patients with SIS increased from 17.1% in the PRE period to 27.2% in the POST period (p = .01). The positivity rate of skeletal surveys in the PRE versus POST period was 18.9% and 26.3% respectively (p = .45). Repeat injury rates did not differ significantly in patients with SIS pre- versus post-TRAIN (p = .44).
Implementation of TRAIN at this institution appears to be associated with increased skeletal survey rates.

© 2023. The Author(s).