Serum Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been used for screening and diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) but it is burdened by its low accuracy, creating a need for reliable diagnostic markers. Despite prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) being widely expressed in the tissue of PCa, no definite conclusion regarding their use as clinical biomarkers due to their lacking organ specificity. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the peripheral blood levels of PSMA and PSCA mRNAs and examine their diagnostic significance as non-invasive integrated markers.
Materials and Methods: 125 subjects were enrolled in this study. They were divided into 25 healthy controls, 25 BPH patients, and 75 PCa patients. The expression levels of PSMA and PSCA were determined using quantitative RT- PCR, in addition to measuring serum PSA.
Results: Levels of PSMA and PSCA were over-expressed in PCa patients compared to controls and BPH patients and were found to be associated with increased susceptibility to PCa. Moreover, the diagnostic values of PSMA and PSCA to distinguish PCa patients from BPH patients and controls were inferior to that of PSA. However, the combination of PSMA and PSCA with PSA enhanced the efficacy of the latter.
Conclusion: This study suggests that these genes were associated with malignant susceptibility. Concerning the duality of PSMA-PSA or PSCA-PSA, this implies the significance of their investigation together in peripheral blood of prostate patients.