This study aimed to investigate the impact of occupational pushing and pulling combined with improper working posture on work-related low back pain (LBP) among workers. A web-based survey was conducted in 2022 to collect data from 15,623 workers, who were categorized into proper and improper working posture groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the association between pushing and pulling loads and LBP in each group. In the proper working posture group, the odds ratios (ORs) of LBP for workers who pushed and pulled were not significantly different compared with those of no-handling workers. However, in the improper working posture group, the ORs of LBP were significantly greater among workers who pushed and pulled compared with those of no-handling workers, and this association became stronger with increasing weights. Therefore, improper working posture combined with pushing and pulling were strongly associated with LBP among workers, particularly with heavier weights.