Cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS), a sensor of cytosolic DNA, recognizes cytoplasmic nucleic acids to activate the innate immune responses via generation of the second messenger cGAMP and subsequent activation of the stimulator of interferon genes (STING). The cGAS-STING signaling has multiple immunologic and physiological functions in all human vital organs. It mediates protective innate immune defense against DNA-containing pathogen infection, confers intrinsic antitumor immunity via detecting tumor-derived DNA, and gives rise to autoimmune and inflammatory diseases upon aberrant activation by cytosolic leakage of self-genomic and mitochondrial DNA. Disruptions in these functions are associated with the pathophysiology of various immunologic and neurodegenerative diseases. Recent evidence indicates important roles of the cGAS-STING signaling in mediating inflammatory responses in ocular inflammatory and inflammation-associated diseases, such as keratitis, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and uveitis. In this review, we summarize the recently emerging evidence of cGAS-STING signaling in mediating ocular inflammatory responses and affecting pathogenesis of these complex eye diseases. We attempt to provide insightful perspectives on future directions of investigating cGAS-STING signaling in ocular inflammation. Understanding of how cGAS-STING signaling is modulated to mediate ocular inflammatory responses would allow future development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat ocular inflammation and autoimmunity.The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.