To evaluate the efficacy of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) pretreatment before total hysterectomy for adenomyosis patients with uterine volume ≥12 gestational weeks and moderate or severe anemia. From January 2018 to March 2023, 689 patients who underwent total hysterectomy for adenomyosis in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were retrospectively analyzed. According to the preoperative medication, they were divided into study group (127 cases) and control group (562 cases). Patients in the study group underwent GnRH-a pretreatment for 3 cycles before surgery, and the control group received operation directly. SPSS 26.0 software was used to perform 1∶1 matching for the two groups of patients through the propensity score matching method. Matching variables included age, body mass index, gravidity, parity, history of pelvic and abdominal surgery, menstrual cycle, menstrual period, dysmenorrhea score, initial diagnosis of cancer antigen 125 (CA), uterine volume and hemoglobin value. The dysmenorrhea score, uterine volume, hemoglobin value and CA level before and after GnRH-a pretreatment in the study group were compared. And the duration of operation, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative white blood cell count, perioperative blood transfusion cases, postoperative disease rate, duration of hospitalization, total hospitalization cost between the two groups were compared. With propensity score matching, 119 patients in the study group and 119 patients in the control group were finally enrolled in this study. In the study group, before and after the treatment with GnRH-a, the dysmenorrhea score (7.4±1.7 vs 5.6±1.8), uterine volume [(362±160) vs (233±126) cm], hemoglobin value [(74.1±10.7) vs (102.5±13.5) g/L], and CA level [(104±76) vs (64±51) kU/L] were statistically different (all <0.05). There were statistical differences of operation time [(86±18) vs (116±31) minutes], intraoperative blood loss [(24±9) vs (43±22) ml], white blood cell count after 1 day of operation [(9.80±0.10)×10/L vs (9.90±0.10)×10/L], number of perioperative blood transfusion case [5.9% (7/119) vs 61.3% (73/119)], postoperative disease rate [5.0% (6/119) vs 16.0% (19/119)], hospitalization duration [(7.1±1.6) vs (7.9±1.6) days], and total hospitalization cost [(35 323±5 275) vs (37 159±5 640) yuan] between the study group and the control group (all <0.05). The pretreatment of using GnRH-a before total hysterectomy for adenomyosis patients with uterine volume ≥12 gestational weeks and moderate or severe anemia is not only conducive to improving dysmenorrhea, signs of anemia, reducing uterine volume, but also conducive to the implementation of surgery, reducing intraoperative and postoperative complications, and reducing hospital costs.