Literature data show an increased severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with cardiovascular, renal comorbidities, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, obesity, diabetes, tumors and immunosuppression.
This retrospective study includes 90 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with COPD or asthma exacerbations from 303 patients hospitalized during a 7-month period (29.7%). The clinical aspect of COPD/asthma exacerbations overlapped to the one by SARS-CoV-2 infection, therefore, we compared our group with 90 patients with SARS-CoV-2 without obstructive disease. We excluded from both groups the patients with known severe cardiac impairment, diabetes, or tumors in order to not having interference with other unfavorable prognostic factors. We assessed the cases severity on clinical basis, pulzoximetry, CT/chest x-ray, and inflammatory markers.
72.2% of our group (48/52 with COPD and 17/38 with asthma) had moderate/severe pneumonia (bilateral interstitial-alveolar infiltrates, increased inflammatory markers, respiratory dysfunction) compared with 56.6% from the nonobstructive group. 14 patients required intensive therapy (including mechanical ventilation). We recorded 4 deaths in COPD group, 1 in asthma group, compared to 2 in non-obstructive patients (fatality 7.6% in COPD compared to 2.2% in nonobstructive group). Treatment included maximized inhaled bronchodilators ± corticosteroids, oxygen, antivirals, anticoagulants, corticosteroids, symptomatic. All patients were referred for clinical-functional and CT scan reassessment 2 months after discharge.
The association of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with COPD or asthma was common, leading to exacerbation with significant severity. Fatality increased in COPD. Outpatient follow-up aims to restage adjust the treatment and monitor post-COVID-19 possible sequels. Orv Hetil. 2023; 164(2): 43-50.