Acetazolamide has been used for diuretic-induced metabolic alkalosis, but the preferred dose, route, and frequency of administration remain unknown.
The purpose of this study was to characterize dosing strategies and determine the effectiveness of intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) acetazolamide for patients with heart failure (HF) with diuretic-induced metabolic alkalosis.
This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study comparing the use of IV versus PO acetazolamide in patients with HF receiving at least 120 mg of furosemide for the treatment of metabolic alkalosis (serum bicarbonate CO ≥32). The primary outcome was the change in CO on the first basic metabolic panel (BMP) within 24 hours of the first dose of acetazolamide. Secondary outcomes included laboratory outcomes, such as change in bicarbonate, chloride, and incidence of hyponatremia and hypokalemia. This study was approved by the local institutional review board.
IV acetazolamide was given in 35 patients and PO acetazolamide was given in 35 patients. Patients in both groups were given a median of 500 mg of acetazolamide in the first 24 hours. For the primary outcome, there was a significant decrease in CO on the first BMP within 24 hours after patients received the IV acetazolamide (-2 [interquartile range, IQR: -2, 0] vs 0 [IQR: -3, 1], = 0.047). There were no differences in secondary outcomes.
IV acetazolamide resulted in significantly decreased bicarbonate within 24 hours of administration. IV acetazolamide may be preferred to treat diuretic-induced metabolic alkalosis in patients with HF.