Magnetic sphincter augmentation (MSA) was introduced in 2007 as an alternative surgical procedure for patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The majority of data since MSA’s introduction has focused on short and intermediate-term results, demonstrating safety and high efficacy in terms of reflux symptom control, freedom from proton pump inhibitor use and normalization of distal esophageal acid exposure. However, GERD is a chronic condition that demands a long-term solution. Limited available data from studies reporting outcomes at 5 years or later following MSA demonstrate that the promising short- and mid-term efficacy and safety profile of MSA remains relatively constant in the long term. Compared with Nissen fundoplication, MSA has a much lower rate of gas-bloat and inability to belch at a short-term follow-up, a difference that persists in the long-term. The most common complaint after MSA at a short-term follow-up is dysphagia. However, limited data suggest dysphagia rates largely decrease by 5 years. Dysphagia is the most common indication for dilation and device removal in both early- and long-term studies. However, the overall rates of dilation and removal are similar in short- and long-term reports, suggesting the majority of these procedures are performed in the short-term period after device implantation. The indications and standard practices of MSA have evolved over time. Long-term outcome data currently available are all from patient cohorts who were selected for MSA under early restricted indications and outdated regimens. Therefore, further long-term studies are needed to corroborate the preliminary, yet encouraging long-term results.
© The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: