Objective This study assessed the relationships between oral health (number of remaining and healthy teeth and periodontal disease) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to contribute to improved patient care. Patients We conducted a cross-sectional cohort study of consecutive patients being regularly treated for chronic diseases (T2DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia). A dentist or dental hygienist accurately evaluated the oral environment. Patients with fewer than 20 teeth were classified as having reduced remaining teeth (RRT). Results A total of 267 patients were enrolled, including 153 patients (57%) with T2DM and 114 without (43%). Patients with T2DM had 3 fewer remaining teeth on average than those without DM [median: 22 (interquartile range (IQR): 11-27) vs. median: 25 (IQR: 17.3-28), p=0.02]. In addition, patients with T2DM had 4 fewer healthy teeth on average than those without DM [median: 8 (IQR: 2.8-15) vs. median: 12 (IQR: 6-16), p=0.02]. The frequency of RRT was higher in the T2DM group (n=63; 41%) than in the non-DM group (n=31; 27%, p=0.02). Multivariable logistic regression for the presence of RRT in the T2DM group found that age [odds ratio (OR), 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.13; p<0.01] and regular dental consultations (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.10-0.76; p=0.01) were independently and significantly associated. Conclusion The number of remaining or healthy teeth was significantly lower in patients with T2DM than in those without T2DM in current Japanese clinical practice. Regular dental consultation is recommended to preserve remaining teeth in patients with T2DM.