Early exercise for acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) improves the patient’s symptoms and does not increase the risk of pulmonary embolism. However, information about its effect on thrombus resolution is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of resistance exercise (RE) in thrombus resolution and recanalization and determine its underlying mechanisms.  METHODS: Ninety-six C57BL/6 J mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control group (C, n = 24); DVT group (D, n = 24); RE + DVT group (ED, n = 24); and inhibitor + RE + DVT group (IED, n = 24). A DVT model was induced by stenosis of the inferior vena cava (IVC). After undergoing IVC ultrasound within 24 h post-operation to confirm DVT formation, mice without thrombosis were excluded. Other mice were sacrificed and specimens were obtained 14 or 28 days after operation. Thrombus-containing IVC was weighed, and the thrombus area and recanalization rate were calculated using HE staining. Masson’s trichrome staining was used to analyze the collagen content. RT-PCR and ELISA were performed to examine IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and VEGF expression levels. SIRT1 expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry staining and RT-PCR. VEGF-A protein expression and CD-31-positive microvascular density (MVD) in the thrombus were observed using immunohistochemistry.  RESULTS: RE did not increase the incidence of pulmonary embolism. It reduced the weight and size of the thrombus and the collagen content. Conversely, it increased the recanalization rate. It also decreased the levels of the pro-inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-α and increased the expression levels of the anti-inflammatory factor IL-10. RE enhanced VEGF and SIRT1 expression levels and increased the MVD in the thrombosis area. After EX527 (SIRT1 inhibitor) was applied, the positive effects of exercise were suppressed.
RE can inhibit inflammatory responses, reduce collagen deposition, and increase angiogenesis in DVT mice, thereby promoting thrombus resolution and recanalization. Its underlying mechanism may be associated with the upregulation of SIRT1 expression.

© 2023. The Author(s).