Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is a common subtype of primary lung cancer. Fatty acid oxidation plays a key role in LUAD development by providing energy for tumor cells. This study aimed to identify the role of ring finger protein 152 (RNF152) in LUAD. RNF152 was down-regulated in LUAD, and low RNF152 expression correlated with a poor prognosis in LUAD patients. RNF152 overexpression inhibited the proliferation and malignant phenotype of LUAD cells, whereas RNF152 knockdown exerted an opposite effect. Tumor cells overexpressing RNF152 showed less fatty acid oxidation compared with control cells, whereas RNF152 knockdown induced fatty acid uptake and oxidation. Further analysis revealed the binding reaction between RNF152 and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1). RNF152 reduced the stability of IRAK1 in LUAD cells by promoting its ubiquitination. RNF152-overexpressed tumor cells exhibited a significantly lower level of Aldo-Keto reductase family 1 member 10 (AKR1B10), whereas up-regulation of IRAK1 restored the expression of AKR1B10 in RNF152-overexpressed cells. Furthermore, up-regulation of IRAK1 eliminated the antitumor effect of RNF152 in LUAD cells. Mouse xenograft models confirmed the inhibitory effect of RNF152 on the tumorigenesis and metastasis of LUAD. Taken together, RNF152 played a tumor suppressive role in LUAD by promoting IRAK1 ubiquitination and IRAK1-mediated down-regulation of AKR1B10, thereby reversing the malignant phenotype of LUAD.Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier Inc.