Inflammatory molecules play important roles in atherosclerosis. We aimed to illustrate the roles of serum amyloid A (SAA), and interleukin (IL)-1β in low density lipoproteins (LDL) transcytosis and atherosclerosis.
Effects of SAA and IL-1β on transcytosis of LDL were measured by an in vitro LDL transcytosis model. NF-κB/caveolin-1/cavin-1 pathway activation was investigated by Western blots and ELISA. Effects of SAA and IL-1β on the retention of LDL in aorta of C57BL/6J mice were detected by IVIS spectrum. Effects of SAA and IL-1β on atherosclerosis in Apoe mice were examined by Oil Red O staining.
SAA and IL-1β stimulated LDL transcytosis across endothelial cells (ECs), which was accompanied by an increase in LDL uptake by ECs. SAA and IL-1β enhanced the activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, consequently facilitating an up-regulation of proteins involved in caveolae formation, including caveolin-1 and cavin-1, along with an assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome. Furthermore, SAA- and IL-1β-induced effects were blocked by NF-κB subunit p65 siRNA. Meanwhile, SAA- and IL-1β-induced LDL transcytosis were effectively blocked by caveolin-1 siRNA or cavin-1 siRNA. Interestingly, SAA and IL-1β facilitated LDL entering into the aorta of C57BL/6J mice. In Apoe mice, SAA and IL-1β increased the areas of lipid-rich atherosclerotic lesions in the both ascending and root of aorta. Furthermore, a significant increase in the NLRP3 inflammasome, accompanied by accumulation of cavin-1 and caveolin-1, was observed in the aortic endothelium of Apoe mice.
SAA and IL-1β accelerated LDL transcytosis via the NF-κB/caveolin-1/cavin-1 axis.

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