Diabetic retinopathy is a common yet complex microvascular disease, caused as a complication of diabetes mellitus. Associated with hyperglycemia and subsequent metabolic abnormalities, advanced stages of the disease lead to fibrosis, subsequent visual impairment and blindness. Though clinical postmortems, animal and cell models provide information about the progression and prognosis of diabetic retinopathy, its underlying pathophysiology still needs a better understanding. In addition to it, the loss of pericytes, immature retinal angiogenesis and neuronal apoptosis portray the disease treatment to be challenging. Indulged with cell loss of both vascular and neuronal type cells, novel therapies like cell replacement strategies by various types of stem cells have been sightseen as a possible treatment of the disease. This review provides insight into the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy, current models used in modelling the disease, as well as the varied aspects of stem cells in generating three-dimensional retinal models. Further outlook on stem cell therapy and the future directions of stem cell treatment in diabetic retinopathy have also been contemplated.© 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.
About The Expert
Om Saswat Sahoo