Globally, urolithiasis is becoming more and more common among children. We aimed to determine the etiology, and the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in patients with urolithiasis.
This was a retrospective study which included all patients (aged 1 month-18 years) admitted to the pediatric nephrology clinic in Elazığ Fethi Sekin City Hospital with urolithiasis between November 2019 and 2021. Only patients whose diagnosis of urolithiasis was confirmed by urinary ultrasonography were included in the study, while patients with chronic diseases (neurological diseases such as epilepsy, cerebral palsy, chronic bowel diseases, etc.) predisposing to kidney stone formation were not. Demographic characteristics, serum and urine biochemical parameters, urine metabolic and kidney stone metabolic and chemical analyses, urinary tract ultrasonography findings and treatment modalities were collected.
One hundred ninety-seven patients (91 female and 106 male) were included in the study. Hypervitaminosis D was detected in 4 (2%) patients, suppressed parathyroid hormone in 12 (6%) and hypercalcemia in 27 (14%) patients. Metabolic screening showed hypercalciuria in 69 (35%) patients, hypocitraturia in 39 (20%), hyperoxaluria in 15 (8%) and cystinuria in 6 (3%) patients. Eighty three (42%) patients had a positive family history for kidney stones. One hundred eighteen (60%) patients received potassium citrate treatment, 71 (36%) were given hydration and diet recommendations without medical treatment, 6 (3%) received tiopronin treatment, and 2 (1%) patients were treated surgically.
Our study suggests that Vitamin D supplementation at doses higher than 400 IU/day may be a risk factor for kidney stones in children. We observed that mothers tend not to give water to infants who are breastfed or formula-fed in the first year of life. K-citrate treatment can be a good option for prevention and dissolution of stones by alkalinization.

© 2023. The Author(s) under exclusive licence to Italian Society of Nephrology.