In clinical practice, repairing osteochondral defects presents a challenge due to the varying biological properties of articular cartilages and subchondral bones. Thus, elucidating how spatial microenvironment-specific biomimetic scaffolds can be used to simultaneously regenerate osteochondral tissue is an important research topic. Herein, a novel bioinspired double-network hydrogel scaffold produced via 3D printing with tissue-specific decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) and human adipose mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes is described. The bionic hydrogel scaffolds promote rat bone marrow MSC attachment, spread, migration, proliferation, and chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation in vitro, as determined based on the sustained release of bioactive exosomes. Furthermore, the 3D-printed microenvironment-specific heterogeneous bilayer scaffolds efficiently accelerate the simultaneous regeneration of cartilage and subchondral bone tissues in a rat preclinical model. In conclusion, 3D dECM-based microenvironment-specific biomimetics encapsulated with bioactive exosomes can serve as a novel cell-free recipe for stem cell therapy when treating injured or degenerative joints. This strategy provides a promising platform for complex zonal tissue regeneration whilst holding attractive clinical translation potential.© 2023 The Authors. Advanced Science published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.