This study applied network analysis to executive function test performances to examine differences in network parameters between demographically matched children and adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 141 per group; M = 12.7 ± 2.9 years-old; 72.3% boys, 66.7% White, 65.2% ≥ 12 years maternal education). All participants completed the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery, including the Flanker, measuring inhibition, Dimensional Change Card Sort, measuring shifting, and List Sorting test, measuring working memory. Children with and without ADHD had comparable mean test performances (d range: .05-0.11) but presented with differences in network parameters. Among participants with ADHD, shifting was less central, had a weaker relationship with inhibition, and did not mediate the relationship between inhibition and working memory. These network characteristics were consistent with the executive function network structure of younger ages in prior research and may reflect an immature executive function network among children and adolescents with ADHD, aligning with the delayed maturation hypothesis.
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