Smile analysis provides data on the positive and negative elements of a patient’s smile. We aimed to develop a simple pictorial chart to record relevant parameters of the smile analysis in a single diagram and to investigate the reliability and validity of this chart.
A panel of 5 orthodontists developed a graphical chart, which was reviewed by 12 orthodontists and 10 orthodontic residents. The chart comprises facial, perioral, and dentogingival zones analyzing 8 continuous and 4 discrete variables. The chart was tested on frontal smiling photographs of 40 young (aged 15-18 years) and 40 old (aged 50-55 years) patients. All measurements were performed twice with an interval of 2 weeks by 2 observers.
Pearson’s correlation coefficients for observers and age groups varied from 0.860 to 1.000 and between observers from 0.753 to 0.999. Minor significant mean differences were found between the first and second observations, which were not clinically relevant. The kappa scores for the dichotomous variables were in perfect agreement. To test the sensitivity of the smile chart, differences between the two age groups were assessed as differences because aging is expected. In the older age group, philtrum height and visibility of mandibular incisors were significantly larger, whereas the upper lip fullness and buccal corridor visibility were significantly lesser (P <0.001).
The newly developed smile chart can record essential smile parameters to aid diagnosis, treatment planning, and research. The chart is simple and easy to use, has face and content validity and good reliability.

Copyright © 2023 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.