At present, the etiology and pathogenesis of most neurodegenerative diseases are still not fully understood, which poses challenges for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of these diseases. Sleep disorders are one of the common chief complaints of neurodegenerative diseases. When patients suffer from comorbid sleep disorder and neurodegenerative diseases, the severity of their condition increases, the quality of their life drops further, and the difficulty of treatment increases. A large number of studies have been conducted to monitor the sleep of patients with neurodegenerative diseases, and it has been found that there are significant changes in their polysomnography (PSG) results compared to those of healthy control populations. In addition, there are also significant differences between the PSG findings of patients with different neurodegenerative diseases and the differences are closely associated with the pathogenesis and development of the disease. Herein, we discussed the characteristics of the sleep structure of patients with Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and dementia with Lewy bodies and provided a brief review of the sleep disorders and the PSG characteristics of these patients. The paper will help improve the understanding of the pathogenesis and pathological changes of neurodegenerative diseases, clarify the relationship between sleep disorders and these diseases, improve clinicians’ further understanding of these diseases, and provide a basis for future research.Copyright© by Editorial Board of Journal of Sichuan University (Medical Sciences).