Blue naevi (BN) form a wide group of benign dermal melanocytic proliferations. They are genetically distinct from common and Spitz naevi with frequent hotspot mutations occurring in Gαq genes. Clinically, BN display a female predominance, elective sites of emergence and a great variety of subtypes related to specific regions of the skin linked to early embryological genetic events. Histologically, most BN are located in the dermis with small, bland, spindled and dendritic pigmented melanocytes within a fibrous background. Variation in tumour volume, fibrosis, and melanin pigment load can be broad. A growth in size and cellularity can occur within a subset of tumours as they acquire the morphological features of cellular blue naevi, with a biphasic architecture associating a dendritic blue naevus morphology near the surface, and deep vertical cellular expansions of medium-sized, bland melanocytes often reaching the subcutis. Sclerosing and myxoid variants can be observed either as individual or combined modifications that can add complexity to an otherwise straightforward diagnosis. Malignant progression of a cellular blue naevus is exceptional with an intermediate stage named atypical cellular blue naevus. Malignant blue melanomas are fast growing, large, pigmented tumours with most often obvious features of malignancy. However, they are difficult to separate from other malignant dermal melanocytic proliferations. Herein, we will extensively detail and illustrate the clinical, histological and genetic features of the vast spectrum of blue naevi and related entities in the skin.
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