Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a malignant hematological neoplastic disease. Autocrine or paracrine cytokines released by leukemic cells regulate the proliferation of AML cells. It is uncertain whether cytokines can indicate whether patients with AML are in remission with chemotherapy. The goal of this study was to evaluate the levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in AML patients before and after chemotherapy to determine whether the cytokine levels could predict disease remission after chemotherapy. It was found that the levels of IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, TNF-β, IL-17F, and IL-22 were significantly increased at the time of AML diagnosis in patients who achieved remission after two chemotherapy treatments (P < 0.05). After chemotherapy, the cytokine levels were reduced in patients with remission, while the levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were raised in patients without remission (P < 0.05). A comparison of cytokine levels before and after chemotherapy in patients who achieved remission showed areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.69 for both IL-6 and IL-8. In addition, a comparison of the remission and non-remission groups after chemotherapy showed an AUC of 0.77 for IL-6. We then calculated the cutoff value using receiver operating characteristic curves. Values of IL-6 < 9.99 and IL-8 14.89 at diagnosis suggested that chemotherapy would not be successful and remission would not be achieved. Multifactorial analysis showed that age, Neu, IL-6, and IL-8 were independent risk factors for AML prognosis, and IL-6 (OR = 5.48, P = 0.0038) was superior to age (OR = 3.36, P = 0.0379), Neu (OR = 0.28, P = 0.0308), IL-8 (OR = 0.0421, P = 0.0421). In conclusion, IL-6 levels were found to be predictive of the likelihood of remission.© 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.