Patients with prolonged duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support (ECMO) are a vulnerable population for sepsis, particularly ventilator-associated pneumonia and bloodstream infections. Rates differ between venous-arterial and venous-venous ECMO patients and according to the cannulation technique used. The presence of particular organisms depends on local epidemiology, antibiotic exposure, and the duration of the intervention; patients undergoing ECMO for more than three weeks present a high risk of persistent candidemia. Recognizing predisposing factors, and establishing the best preventive interventions and therapeutic choices are critical to optimizing the management of these complications. Infection control practices, including shortening the period of the indwelling devices, and reducing antibiotic exposure, must be followed meticulously. Innovations in oxygenator membranes require an updated approach. Hand hygiene and avoiding breaking the circuit-oxygenator sterility are cornerstones. ECMO management would benefit from clearer definitions, optimization of infection control strategies, and updated infectious clinical practice guidelines.Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.