The ant genus Aphaenogaster Mayr, 1853 is especially diverse in the West-Palearctic region, where its taxonomy is still problematic for several groups. Among other issues, there is a redundancy of valid taxa compared to the number of species whose validity is currently sustained by any evidence. Names that do not represent taxa with clearly defined identities complicate specimen identification and add confusion to biodiversity databases and checklists. Based on a review of the available literature information on several taxa, and the study of both type and non-type material, the following taxonomic changes are proposed: i) A. mauritanica Dalla Torre, 1893 should be considered a senior synonym of A. gibbosa homonyma Emery, 1921 syn. nov. and of A. foreli Cagniant, 1996 syn. nov. (the Maghrebian populations of the pallida group hitherto considered to represent A. foreli should be attributed to A. dulcineae Emery, 1924); ii) A. pallida (Nylander, 1849) should be considered a senior synonym of A. leveillei Emery, 1881 syn. nov. and of A. leveillei laurenti Santschi, 1939 syn. nov.; iii) A. sangiorgii (Emery, 1901) should be considered a senior synonym of A. finzii Müller, 1921 syn. nov. and A. radchenkoi Kiran & Tezcan, 2008 syn. nov.; iv) A. sardoa Mayr, 1853 should be considered a senior synonym of A. sardoa ujhelyii Szabó, 1910 syn. nov. and A. sardoa anoemica Santschi, 1910 syn. nov.; v) A. subterraneosplendida André, 1883 should be considered a senior synonym of A. sicula Emery, 1908 syn. nov.; vi) A. subterraneoides Emery, 1881 should be considered a senior synonym of A. subterraneoides armeniaca Arnol’di, 1968 syn. nov. These changes will reduce the gap between nomenclature and actual understanding of species diversity, while synonymized names may be resurrected if supporting evidence is discovered.