Lysosomal function and organellar Ca homeostasis become dysfunctional in Stroke causing disturbances in autophagy, the major process for the degradation of abnormal protein aggregates and dysfunctional organelles. However, the role of autophagy in Stroke is controversial since excessive or prolonged autophagy activation exacerbates ischemic brain injury. Of note, glutamate evokes NAADP-dependent Ca release via lysosomal TPC2 channels thus controlling basal autophagy. Considering the massive release of excitotoxins in Stroke, autophagic flux becomes uncontrolled with abnormal formation of autophagosomes causing, in turn, disruption of excitotoxins clearance and neurodegeneration. Here, a fine regulation of autophagy via a proper pharmacological modulation of lysosomal TPC2 channel has been tested in preclinical Stroke models. Primary cortical neurons were subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation+reoxygenation to reproduce in vitro brain ischemia. Focal brain ischemia was induced in rats by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Under these conditions, TPC2 protein expression as well as autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers were studied by Western blotting, while TPC2 localization and activity were measured by immunocytochemistry and single-cell video-imaging, respectively. TPC2 protein expression and immunosignal were highly modulated in primary cortical neurons exposed to extreme hypoxic conditions causing dysfunction in organellar Ca homeostasis, ER stress and autophagy-induced cell death. TPC2 knocking down and pharmacological inhibition by Ned-19 during hypoxia induced neuroprotection. The effect of Ned-19 was reversed by the permeable form of TPC2 endogenous agonist, NAADP-AM. Of note, Ned-19 prevented ER stress, as measured by GRP78 (78 kDa glucose-regulated protein) protein reduction and caspase 9 downregulation. In this way Ned-19 restored organellar Ca level. Interestingly, Ned-19 reduced the infarct volume and neurological deficits in rats subjected to tMCAO and prevented hypoxia-induced cell death by blocking autophagic flux. Collectively, the pharmacological inhibition of TPC2 lysosomal channel by Ned-19 protects from focal ischemia by hampering a hyperfunctional autophagy.Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier Inc.
About The Expert
Maria Josè Sisalli