VEXAS (vacuoles, E1 enzyme, X-linked, auto-inflammatory, somatic) syndrome is a newly described auto-inflammatory disease. Many cases feature pulmonary infiltrates or respiratory failure. This systematic review aimed to summarize respiratory manifestations in VEXAS syndrome described to date.
Databases were searched for articles discussing VEXAS syndrome until May 2022. The research question was: What are the pulmonary manifestations in patients with VEXAS syndrome? The search was restricted to English language and those discussing clinical presentation of disease. Information on basic demographics, type and prevalence of pulmonary manifestations, co-existing disease associations and author conclusions on pulmonary involvement were extracted. The protocol was registered on the PROSPERO register of systematic reviews.
Initially, 219 articles were retrieved with 36 ultimately included (all case reports or series). A total of 269 patients with VEXAS were included, 98.6% male, mean age 66.8 years at disease onset. The most frequently described pulmonary manifestation was infiltrates (43.1%; n = 116), followed by pleural effusion (7.4%; n = 20) and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (3.3%; n = 9). Other pulmonary manifestations were: nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (n = 1), bronchiolitis obliterans (n = 3), pulmonary vasculitis (n = 6), bronchiectasis (n = 1), alveolar haemorrhage (n = 1), pulmonary embolism (n = 4), bronchial stenosis (n = 1), and alveolitis (n = 1). Several patients had one or more co-existing autoimmune/inflammatory condition. It was not reported which patients had particular pulmonary manifestations.
This is the first systematic review undertaken in VEXAS patients. Our results demonstrate that pulmonary involvement is common in this patient group. It is unclear if respiratory manifestations are part of the primary disease or a co-existing condition. Larger epidemiological analyses will aid further characterisation of pulmonary involvement and disease management.

© 2023. The Author(s).