Magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSNPs) are being widely investigated as multifunctional novel drug delivery systems (DDSs) and play an important role in targeted therapy. Here, magnetic cores were synthesized using the thermal decomposition method. Further, to improve the biocompatibility and pharmacokinetic behavior, mesoporous silica was synthesized using the sol-gel process to coat the magnetic cores. Subsequently, sunitinib (SUN) was loaded into the MMSNPs, and the particles were armed with amine-modified mucin 1 (MUC-1) aptamers. The MMSNPs were characterized using FT-IR, TEM, SEM, electrophoresis gel, DLS, and EDX. MTT assay, flow cytometry analysis, ROS assessment, and mitochondrial membrane potential analysis evaluated the nanoparticles’ biological impacts. The physicochemical analysis revealed that the engineered MMSNPs have a smooth surface and spherical shape with an average size of 97.6 nm. The biological in vitro analysis confirmed the highest impacts of the targeted MMSNPs in MUC-1 overexpressing cells (OVCAR-3) compared to the MUC-1 negative MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, the synthesized MMSNP-SUN-MUC-1 nanosystem serves as a unique multifunctional targeted delivery system to combat the MUC-1 overexpressing ovarian cancer cells.