Hepatitis C virus is a common cause of chronic liver disease, that may lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular cancer and liver transplanation. The advent of highly efficacious direct-acting antivirals and their success in the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection, generated soon an optimism. Thus, the World Health Organization has adopted a global strategy of reducing the incidence of new hepatitis B and C virus infection by 90 % by 2030. However, it turned out, that this goal is not achievable by drug treatment alone without a vaccination, because of the high number of infected persons, low rate of screening and poor access to treatment in several countries, and even the cost of the therapy. The paper discusses the virological and imunological feaures of the HCV infection, and the possibility of an effective vaccination against hepatitis C virus. In addition, we overview the types of potential vaccines and the models for the assessment of vaccine efficacy. The controlled human infection model using healthy volunters, became a real possibility, due to the availability of direct-acting antiviral treatment for hepatitis C. On the ground of the newest results of vaccine researches, we are confident to achive the goal of eliminating hepatitis C virus in the near future. Orv Hetil. 2023; 164(9): 322-331.