Human life expectancy has increased over the past few centuries, and the incidence of dementia in the older population is also projected to continue to rise. Neurodegenerative diseases are complex multifactorial conditions for which no effective treatments are currently available. Animal models are necessary to understand the causes and progression of neurodegeneration. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) offer significant advantages for the study of neurodegenerative disease. Among them, the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, stands out due to its easy handling, complex brain architecture, and occurrence of spontaneous beta-amyloid (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau aggregates with aging. Furthermore, marmosets present physiological adaptations and metabolic alterations associated with the increased risk of dementia in humans. In this review, we discuss the current literature on the use of marmosets as a model of aging and neurodegeneration. We highlight aspects of marmoset physiology associated with aging, such as metabolic alterations, which may help understand their vulnerability to developing a neurodegenerative phenotype that goes beyond normal aging.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.