House-dust mite sensitization is an important cause of allergic asthma and/or rhinitis in southern China. This study aimed to analyze the immune effect and relationship between the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus components specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) and sIgG₄. The serum levels of sIgE and sIgG₄ to D. pteronyssinus allergen components Der p 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 23 were detected in 112 patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and/or allergic asthma (AA). Overall, Der p 1 had the highest positive rate of sIgE (72.3%), followed by Der p 2 (65.2%) and Der p 23 (46.4%). Meanwhile, the highest positive rates of sIgG₄ were for Der p 2 (47.3%), Der p 1 (33.0%), and Der p 23 (25.0%). The patients with AR and AA had a higher positive rate (43.4%) of sIgG₄ than that in the patients with AR (42.4%) and the patients with AA (20.4%; p = 0.043). In patients with AR, the positive rate of sIgE in Der p 1 (84.8%) was higher than that in sIgG₄ (42.4%; p = 0.037), but the positive rate of sIgG₄ in Der p 10 (21.2%) was higher than that in sIgE (18.2%; p < 0.001). Most of the patients were positive for sIgE and sIgG₄ of Der p 2 and Der p 10 at the same time. However, positive results for sIgE alone were just found in Der p 7 and Der p 21. Optimal scale analysis showed that Der p 2, Der p 7, and Der p 21 sIgG₄ were closely related to AR and AA (Cronbach α = 0.917). Herein, the D. pteronyssinus allergen components showed different characteristics among the patients with AR, patients with AA, and patients with AR and AA in southern China. Thus, sIgG₄ may be play an important role in allergic reactions.