Prophylactic tumor vaccines hold great promise against tumor occurrence. However, their clinical efficacy remains low due to inadequate activation of strong-sustainable immunity. Herein, a biomembrane hydrogel was designed as a powerful single-shot prophylactic tumor vaccine. Mannose-decorated hybrid biomembrane (MHCM) modified with oxidized sodium alginate (OSA) was designed as a gelator (O-MHCM), where the hybrid biomembrane (HCM) is a hybridization of bacterial outer membrane vesicle (OMV) and tumor cell membrane (TCM). The O-MHCM enables quick gelation subcutaneously where the cysteine protease inhibitor E64 is encapsulated in hydrogel micropores. After a single vaccination of E64@O-MHCM hydrogel, MHCM and E64 are released sustainably due to OSA moiety degradation. The MHCM enables active targeting to dendritic cells (DC) and effective DC maturation. Meanwhile, the E64 enables sufficient antigen availability for subsequent cross presentation. Ultimately, strong and sustainable T lymphocyte-mediated immunity was elicited, demonstrating a strong prophylactic effect against breast tumors. This study provides a long-lasting platform to prevent tumor occurrence, opening an innovative avenue for the design of a single-shot prophylactic tumor vaccine. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Developing a single-shot prophylactic tumor vaccine to elicit strong-sustainable immunity is of great interest clinically. Here, a prophylactic tumor vaccine was designed using an injectable biomembrane hydrogel for achieving strong-sustainable immunity. The mannose-tailored hybrid biomembrane was modified with oxidized sodium alginate to result in a gelator, which enabled the formation of the hydrogel after subcutaneous injection. Cysteine protease inhibitor E64 was incorporated into the micropores of the hydrogel. The hydrogel induced strong-sustainable immunity through the continuous release of active components. This was facilitated by the mannose moiety, which enabled active targeting, as well as the antigen and adjuvant function of biomembrane, and the E64-enabled suppression of antigen degradation. The biomembrane hydrogel demonstrated powerful prevention of 4T1 breast tumors. This study offers an attractive strategy for designing a single-shot prophylactic tumor vaccine.Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier Ltd.