This study aimed to explore the clinical characteristics of perioperative acute gout attacks in patients with varying uric acid levels undergoing orthopedic surgery, identify the risk factors for gout recurrence within the first postoperative year, and provide a disease prevention and diagnostic reference.
This hospital-based retrospective study was conducted between January 2018 and December 2020. According to the blood uric acid levels at admission, the patients were grouped into either the normal uric acid level group or the hyperuricemia group. Patient comorbidities, serum uric acid levels, inflammatory indicators, follow-up recurrence rates, and other indicators were compared.
The uric acid decline ratio and the inflammatory indexes (white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level) at the time of the attack were significantly higher in the normal uric acid level group than in the hyperuricemia group (P < 0.05). Patients in the hyperuricemia group with diabetes and tophi and those administered diuretics were more prone to acute gout attacks than those in the normal uric acid level group (P < 0.05). In the normal uric acid level group, 22 patients (84.6%) exhibited single joint involvement, whereas only 18 patients (47.4%) in the hyperuricemia group demonstrated single joint involvement (P < 0.05). After 1 year of follow-up, the gout recurrence rate in the hyperuricemia group was 44.7%, which was significantly higher that the recurrence rate in the normoglycemic group (11.5%; P < 0.05). Presenting tophi in perioperative orthopedic surgery patients was found to be an independent risk factor for gout recurrence within 1 year (RR = 4.80; P = 0.029).
The recurrence rate of gout in patients with hyperuricemia during perioperative period increased 1 year after operation. Therefore, it is crucial to monitor the uric acid level to prevent acute gout attacks during the perioperative period and recurrence during the 1-year follow-up period. Moreover, the risk of an acute gout recurrence 1 year after operation increased in patients who presented tophi; therefore, it is necessary to maintain appropriate blood uric acid level during perioperative period among patients undergoing orthopedic surgery.

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