Prostate cancer is currently one of the most common malignancies that endanger the lives and health of elderly men. In recent years, immunotherapy, which exploits the activation of anti-cancer host immune cells to accomplish tumor-killing effects, has emerged as a new study avenue in the treatment of prostate cancer. As an important component of immunotherapy, cancer vaccines have a unique position in the precision treatment of malignant tumors. Monocyte cell vaccines, dendritic cell vaccines, viral vaccines, peptide vaccines, and DNA/mRNA vaccines are the most often used prostate cancer vaccines. Among them, Sipuleucel-T, as a monocyte cell-based cancer vaccine, is the only FDA-approved therapeutic vaccine for prostate cancer, and has a unique position and role in advancing the development of immunotherapy for prostate cancer. However, due to its own limitations, Sipuleucel-T has not been widely adopted. Meanwhile, owing to the complexity of immunotherapy and the specificity of prostate cancer, the remaining prostate cancer vaccines have not shown good clinical benefit in large randomized phase II and phase III trials, and further in-depth studies are still needed.