Bronchiectasis is a final common pathway of a wide variety of underlying conditions including infectious, autoimmune, allergic, genetic and inflammatory conditions. Patients experience a chronic disease with variable clinical symptoms and course, but most experience cough, sputum production and recurrent exacerbations. Symptoms of bronchiectasis lead to poor quality of life and exacerbations are the major driver of morbidity and mortality. Patients are often chronically infected with bacteria with the most common being Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Haemophilus influenzae. Treatment of bronchiectasis includes standardised testing to identify the underlying cause with targeted treatment if immune deficiency, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection, for example, are identified. Airway clearance is the mainstay of therapy for patients with symptoms of cough and sputum production. Frequently exacerbating patients may benefit from long term antibiotic or mucoactive therapies. Bronchiectasis is a heterogeneous disease and increasingly precision medicine approaches are advocated to target treatments most appropriately and to limit the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.