Approximately 25% of all pediatric consultations are due to respiratory conditions, 10% of which are for asthma. Regarding prevalence, bronchiolitis, acute bronchitis, and respiratory infections are other leading pediatric respiratory illnesses. Compared to the aforementioned diseases, pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS) is rare but lethal in the Intensive Care Unit patients. According to global studies, the mortality in PARDS ranges from 13.3% to 60.7%. Before the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference (PALICC), adult acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) management guidelines were used for PARDS. The PALICC set new criteria to identify PARDS with a different treatment and management approach. Steroids have been used to treat ARDS in some cases, although their effectiveness in treating pediatric patients is highly debated in the scientific community. This review examines steroid use in treating PARDS, emphasizes current developments in the field, and gives a broad overview of PARDS management.
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