Recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI) is a highly prevalent condition associated with significant poor quality of life outcomes. A patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) of rUTI-associated psychosocial impact is urgently required to supplement clinical evaluation and validate the challenges experienced by patients. This study therefore developed and validated the Recurrent UTI Impact Questionnaire (RUTIIQ).
A rigorous four-stage methodology was followed: (I) concept elicitation through a qualitative survey of the experiences of people with rUTI (N = 1983); (II) Delphi expert screening of the RUTIIQ with expert rUTI clinicians (N = 15); (III) one-to-one cognitive interviews with people experiencing rUTI (N = 28) to evaluate the comprehensiveness and comprehensibility of the RUTIIQ, and (IV) full pilot testing of the RUTIIQ with people experiencing rUTI (N = 240) to perform final item reduction and psychometric analysis.
Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated a five-factor structure comprising: ‘patient satisfaction’, ‘work and activity interference’, ‘social wellbeing’, ‘personal wellbeing’, and ‘sexual wellbeing’, collectively accounting for 73.8% of the total variance in pilot scores. Results from expert clinicians and patients indicated strong item content validity (I-CVI > .75). The internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the RUTIIQ subscales were excellent (Cronbach’s α = .81-.96, ICC = .66-.91), and construct validity was strong (Spearman’s ρ > .69).
The RUTIIQ is a 30-item questionnaire with excellent psychometric properties, assessing the patient-reported psychosocial impact of living with rUTI symptoms and pain. This new instrument delivers the unique opportunity to enhance patient-centred care through standardised observation and monitoring of rUTI patient outcomes.
This study was pre-registered with (identifier: NCT05086900).

© 2023. The Author(s).