This study aimed to construct a new staging system for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) based on combined pathological TNM (pTNM) stage, radiomics, and proteomics.
This study collected patients with radiomics and pTNM stage (Cohort 1, n = 786), among whom 103 patients also had proteomic data (Cohort 2, n = 103). The Cox regression model with the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to construct a nomogram and predictive models. Concordance index (C-index) and the integrated area under the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (IAUC) were used to evaluate the predictive models. The corresponding staging systems were further assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves.
For Cohort 1, the RadpTNM4c staging systems, constructed based on combined pTNM stage and radiomic features, outperformed the pTNM4c stage in both the training dataset 1 (Train1; IAUC 0.711 vs. 0.706, p < 0.001) and the validation dataset 1 (Valid1; IAUC 0.695 vs. 0.659, p < 0.001; C-index 0.703 vs. 0.674, p = 0.029). For Cohort 2, the ProtRadpTNM2c staging system, constructed based on combined pTNM stage, radiomics, and proteomics, outperformed the pTNM2c stage in both the Train2 (IAUC 0.777 vs. 0.610, p < 0.001; C-index 0.898 vs. 0.608, p < 0.001) and Valid2 (IAUC 0.746 vs. 0.608, p < 0.001; C-index 0.889 vs. 0.641, p = 0.009) datasets.
The ProtRadpTNM2c staging system, based on combined pTNM stage, radiomic, and proteomic features, improves the predictive performance of the classical pTNM staging system.

© 2022. Society of Surgical Oncology.