To date, there are no studies that have analyzed the possible influence of exposure to prenatal sex hormones on the risk of laryngeal cancer (LC) and premalignant laryngeal lesion-vocal fold leukoplakia (VFL). Digit ratio (2D:4D) is suggested to be a proxy of prenatal sex hormone exposure.
To examine 2D:4D in patients with LC and clarify if it could add to the verified risk factors in estimating the overall risk of LC.
511 subjects participated in the study. The study group included 269 patients: with LC (N = 114, 64 men) and VFL (N = 155, 116 men). Controls included 242 healthy individuals (66.40 ± 4.50 years (106 men)).
Predictive models estimating the risk of VFL and LC in women, based solely on predictors like smoking and alcohol consumption had a lower area under the ROC curve (AUC) than the model with left 2D:4D. AUC for the model estimating the likelihood of VFL increased from 0.83 to 0.85, and for LC from 0.76 to 0.79.
Low left 2D:4D may be associated with an increased risk of developing leukoplakia and laryngeal cancer in women. In the case of laryngeal cancer, left 2D:4D may serve as additional variable (to other known risk factors, such as smoking and/or alcohol consumption), which can improve cancer risk prediction.

© 2023. The Author(s).