Osmotic release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) is one of the most commonly used medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), however, real-world knowledge on OROS-MPH dose titration has been limited. This study aims to summarize and visualise the OROS-MPH titration patterns in children and adolescents with ADHD in the United States (US) and Japan.
This retrospective cohort study used the US IBM® MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters database from 2000 to 2019 and the Japan Medical Data Centre database from 2008 to 2019. New OROS-MPH users with ADHD were identified and split into child (6 to < 13 years) and adolescent (13 to < 18 years) groups according to age at OROS-MPH initiation/reinitiation. Patient characteristics and OROS-MPH treatment patterns were described. OROS-MPH dose titration pathways were visualised by Sankey diagrams.
We included 98,973 children and 62,002 adolescents in the US cohort, and 4595 children and 1508 adolescents in the Japanese cohort. In Japanese cohort, 91.9% of children and 77.9% of adolescents initiated OROS-MPH at the lowest dose (18 mg/day), whereas US patients had a broader distribution of initial doses (e.g., 18-54 mg/day). The US patients had higher daily dose of OROS-MPH than Japanese patients. Overall, a minority (< 40%) of the OROS-MPH users underwent dose titration, and different titration patterns were observed between the US and Japanese patients.
Different treatment and titration patterns of OROS-MPH were observed in the two countries. Additional real-world studies about clinical reasoning underlying dose selection are needed to support clinical decision-making.

© 2023. The Author(s).