Completely occlusive acute-subacute portal and mesenteric vein thrombosis (PVMVT) with severe complications is fatal. Endovascular treatments (EVTs) of acute-subacute PVMVT are not standardized. Thrombectomy combined with continuous catheter-directed thrombolysis is considered an effective treatment. Here, we aimed to evaluate the outcome of EVTs of completely occlusive acute-subacute PVMVT with severe complications in patients without cirrhosis.
Nineteen patients (nine men and 10 women; age, 60.1 ± 16.8 years) with completely occlusive acute-subacute PVMVT were retrospectively assessed. Acute-subacute PVMVT was defined as symptom onset within 40 days, with no cavernous transformation observed on contrast-enhanced computed tomography. The patients were treated with EVTs, a combination of thrombectomy (including aspiration thrombectomy, plain old balloon angioplasty, single injection of thrombolytic agents, and stent placement) and continuous catheter-directed thrombolysis. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to assess all-cause mortality, acute-subacute PVMVT-related mortality, and portal vein (PV) patency. The degree of recanalization and patency of PV, complications, factors related to acute-subacute PVMVT-related mortality, and factors related to patency of PV were also evaluated.
The all-cause and acute-subacute PVMVT-related mortality rates were 36.8% (7/19) and 31.6% (6/19), respectively. Seven (36.8%) and 11 (57.9%) patients achieved complete and partial recanalization, respectively. Among the 18 patients who achieved recanalization, follow-up images after 608.7 ± 889.5 days confirmed recanalization in 83.3% (15/18) patients, and 53.3% (8/15) of these patients achieved patency of PV. Seven patients (36.8%) developed complications, and two (10.5%) required interventional treatment for complications. Deterioration of liver function significantly worsened the prognosis (P = 0.046), while anticoagulation therapy significantly maintained portal patency (P = 0.03).
This endovascular method for acute-subacute PVMVT, which combines thrombectomy and continuous catheter-directed thrombolysis EVT approach was effective for thrombus resolution. However, further studies must define conditions that improve patient prognosis.

© 2023. The Author(s).