Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) driven by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. While the therapeutic arsenal has expanded significantly for management of relapsing forms of MS, treatment of individuals with progressive MS is suboptimal. This treatment inequality is in part due to an incomplete understanding of pathomechanisms at different stages of the disease-underscoring the critical need for new biomarkers. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their bioactive cargo have emerged as endogenous nanoparticles with great theranostic potential-as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and ultimately as therapeutic candidates for precision nanotherapeutics. The goals of this review are to: 1) summarize the current data investigating the role of EVs and their bioactive cargo in MS pathogenesis, 2) provide a high level overview of advances and challenges in EV isolation and characterization for translational studies, and 3) conclude with future perspectives on this evolving field.
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