Investigating for mismatch repair protein deficiency (MMRd), microsatellite instability (MSI), and Lynch syndrome (LS) is widely accepted in endometrial cancer, but knowledge is limited on its value in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The primary objective was to evaluate the prevalence of mismatch repair protein deficiency (MMRd), microsatellite instability (MSI)-high, and Lynch syndrome (LS) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), as well as the diagnostic accuracy of LS screening tests. The secondary objective was to determine the prevalence of MMRd, MSI-high, and LS in synchronous ovarian endometrial cancer and in histological subtypes.
We systematically searched the MEDLINE, Epub Ahead of Print, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Embase databases. We included studies analysing MMR, MSI, and/or LS by sequencing.
A total of 55 studies were included. The prevalence of MMRd, MSI-high, and LS in EOC was 6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 5-8%), 13% (95% CI 12-15%), and 2% (95% CI 1-3%) respectively. Hypermethylation was present in 76% of patients with MLH1 deficiency (95% CI 64-84%). The MMRd prevalence was highest in endometrioid (12%) followed by non-serous non-mucinous (9%) and lowest in serous (1%) histological subtypes. MSI-high prevalence was highest in endometrioid (12%) and non-serous non-mucinous (12%) and lowest in serous (9%) histological subtypes. Synchronous and endometrioid EOC had the highest prevalence of LS pathogenic variants at 7% and 3% respectively, with serous having lowest prevalence (1%). Synchronous ovarian and endometrial cancers had highest rates of MMRd (28%) and MSI-high (28%). Sensitivity was highest for IHC (91.1%) and IHC with MSI (92.8%), while specificity was highest for IHC with methylation (92.3%).
MMRd and germline LS testing should be considered for non-serous non-mucinous EOC, particularly for endometrioid.
The rates of mismatch repair deficiency, microsatellite instability high, and mismatch repair germline mutations are highest in endometrioid subtype and non-serous non-mucinous ovarian cancer. The rates are lowest in serous histologic subtype.

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