High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is a particularly lethal malignancy that is prognostically influenced by the immune profile of the tumor microenvironment (TME). TME immune profiles have been sub-categorized according to features associated with both survival outcomes as well as response to systemic therapies. Five suggested immune phenotypes have been described and correlated with overall survival outcomes. Phenotypes associated with shorter overall survival rates appear to have prominent immunosuppressive features within their TME. The opportunity to triage patients according to their prognostic TME profile might allow selection of individual patients with poor prognostic features who could most benefit from innovative immunomodulatory treatment strategies. Two potential strategies to indirectly manipulate the TME (and oncologic outcomes) are alteration of the gut microbiome composition and alteration of TME metabolism through dietary interventions. Experimental dietary modifications in humans designed for influencing cancer outcomes are only beginning to be studied in a prospective fashion. Herein we summarize prognostic TME features in HGSOC and potential opportunities for immunomodulation via dietary and gut microbial interventions.Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier Inc.