The field of neural tissue engineering has undergone a revolution due to advancements in three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. This technology now enables the creation of intricate neural tissue constructs with precise geometries, topologies, and mechanical properties. Currently, there are various 3D printing techniques available, such as stereolithography and digital light processing, and a wide range of materials can be utilized, including hydrogels, biopolymers, and synthetic materials. Furthermore, the development of four-dimensional (4D) printing has gained traction, allowing for the fabrication of structures that can change shape over time using techniques such as shape-memory polymers. These innovations have the potential to facilitate neural regeneration, drug screening, disease modeling, and hold tremendous promise for personalized diagnostics, precise therapeutic strategies against brain cancers. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art techniques and materials for 3D printing in neural tissue engineering and brain cancer. It focuses on the exciting possibilities that lie ahead, including the emerging field of 4D printing. Additionally, the paper discusses the potential applications of five-dimensional and six-dimensional printing, which integrate time and biological functions into the printing process, in the fields of neuroscience.Creative Commons Attribution license.