The clinical hazard of prostate cancer development after five-alpha reductase inhibitors (5ARI) treatment among benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) patients is still controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological features of BPH patients treated in a single institute to identify risk factors associated with prostate cancer development.
We retrospectively analyzed patients who were diagnosed with BPH and received alpha blockers (AB) only or 5ARI between January 2007 and December 2012 and followed up until death or December 2020. The primary study outcome was prostate cancer and high-grade prostate cancer.
Of the 5,122 included patients, 14.9% (762/5,122) received 5ARI during their BPH treatment. The median age, initial prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels and the PSA change were significantly higher in the 5ARI group compared to those of the AB group. The prostate cancer diagnosis rate was higher in the 5ARI group, and the percentage of high-grade prostate cancer was not different between the two groups. In total, 1,715 (33.5%) patients were recorded dead, and the median follow-up period was longer in the 5ARI group. In Cox regression analysis, only age and initial PSA levels were significantly associated with prostate cancer. Late PSA was the only independent factor associated with high-grade prostate cancer development.
Our real-world data revealed that age, initial PSA, and late PSA levels were associated with prostate cancer and high-grade prostate cancer diagnosis among BPH patients. Furthermore, 5ARI use had no effect on prostate cancer patient survival. However, PSA assessment during follow-up is still required in our institutional practice to avoid delayed diagnosis.

Copyright © 2023 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.