There are a large number of gynaecological cancers with rare histologies, for which the available data are limited and usually retrospective. Because of their rarity and poor prognosis, the management of these cancers must be centralized in expert centres, for both histological diagnosis and treatment. With the exception of sarcomas, most endometrial or cervical cancers with rare histologies respond to the same radiation treatment modalities than cancers with more common histologies, although there are some specificities regarding treatments such as neuroendocrine carcinomas (chemotherapy with platinum and etoposide, major role of surgery). For localized or locally advanced ovarian cancer, external beam radiotherapy has a role in the management of hypercalcaemic small cell carcinoma of the ovary. This article summarizes the current role of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy in the management of cancers of the uterine cervix, uterine corpus and ovaries, with rare or very rare histologies, and with localized or locally advanced stages.Copyright © 2023 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.