Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) are among the leading causes of blindness. Due to the multifactorial nature of these vitreoretinal diseases, omics approaches are essential for a deeper understanding of the pathophysiologic processes underlying the evolution to a proliferative or neovascular etiology, in which patients suffer from an abrupt loss of vision. For many years, it was thought that the function of the vitreous was merely structural, supporting and protecting the surrounding ocular tissues. Proteomics studies proved that vitreous is more complex and biologically active than initially thought, and its changes reflect the physiological and pathological state of the eye. The vitreous is the scenario of a complex interplay between inflammation, fibrosis, oxidative stress, neurodegeneration, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Vitreous proteome not only reflects the pathological events that occur in the retina, but the changes in the vitreous itself play a central role in the onset and progression of vitreoretinal diseases. Therefore, this review offers an overview of the studies on the vitreous proteome that could help to elucidate some of the pathological mechanisms underlying proliferative and/or neovascular vitreoretinal diseases and to find new potential pharmaceutical targets.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.